With the rapid development of modern science and technology, China's AIS anti-collision and BeiDou Satellite Navigation System (BDS) technologies have been applied more extensively, especially in China's marine fishery because of its rapid development in recent years. Therefore, the article mainly discusses the application of AIS anti-collision and BDS technologies in China's marine management, and elaborates on AIS anti-collision, BDS, fishing port supervision and safety management, and marine safety production, in hope of helping China's marine fishery development.
1. Significance of Application of BDS in Marine Fishery
BDS is a satellite navigation and positioning system that is being implemented in China and has independent intellectual property rights. The system consists of space segments, ground segments and various types of BeiDou user segments. It integrates four functions of positioning, navigation, timing and two-way short message communication services. It can cover China and its surrounding countries and regions and is available 24/7. The system is characterized by no communication blind areas, high-intensity encryption design, security, reliability, stability, and suitability for key sectors. Additionally, with the increasing perfection of marine communication and navigation as well as various types of electronic control equipment, all-round monitoring of fleets, timely grasp of the actual sailing situation of ships, and quick understanding of dynamic data of ships are new symbols for improving ship management. Therefore, the establishment of a BDS-based ship monitoring center is of great significance for enhancing the effective command and management of ships in operation and ensuring the navigation safety of ships.
2. Application of AIS Anti-Collision in Marine Fishery
2.1 Overview of AIS Anti-Collision Technology
The installation of such a system can improve marine safety and enable on-board officers on watch (OOW) and VTS operators to improve the monitoring of ship traffic. The system is based on the so-called self-organized time-division multiple access technology, which is also known as 4S (Ship to Ship and Ship to Shore) in marine application. Another name for this technology is STDMA which allows very high-capacity data links of 2,250 reports per minute per channel.
This concept basically uses known technologies, but only combines those technologies into a unique and specialized method. Three main components form a unit transponder which is fully automatic and broadcastable. Its capability has far surpassed that of the previous-generation transponder and began to be used as a critical inquiry/response device. The three main components of the transponder are a GPS receiver, a VHF transceiver, and a computer. Simply put, the GPS receiver provides accurate location and navigation data. The computer bundles the data with statistical information such as ship speed, ship name, call sign, heading, and course over ground, and broadcasts them on a digital data link via the VHF. All ships equipped with an AIS transponder within the VHF range can receive the information. If the AIS transponder is turned on, the location, speed, name, call sign, heading, and course over ground of other ships will be plotted on the electronic chart system (ECS) or the electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS). This means that each ship within the VHF radio coverage can be automatically plotted on the ECS of the bridge. Differential corrections to improve GPS accuracy can be obtained from beacon receivers installed on shore-based stations or ships via the same AIS data link.
2.2 Application of AIS Anti-Collision in Marine Fishery
The AIS technology combined with the ECS enables OOW to greatly improve the monitoring of the nearby sea areas and the understanding of the ship's traffic environment. As soon as any ship enters the VHF range, it may be notified or displayed on the ECS or ECDIS. The same information indicated in the VTS application may also be displayed on the ECDIS. For example, changes near the heading can be detected faster than today's ARPA technology. In fact, the changes near the heading are original information used by OOW to make course decisions, and they should be updated very fast. The earliest design of the AIS system was an autonomous continuous system that operated from ship to ship but did not include shore-based stations.
The shipboard AIS has the following advantages: (1) automatically identifying ships within the VHF range; (2) predicting the exact location of the encountering ship; (3) predicting the minimum distance to the ship bow; (4) identifying the ships behind an island or at the channel turning; (5) obtaining the information on changes in course over ground, heading and speed in real time; and (6) short message communications on the data link.
The information broadcast by the AIS unit is stored in three separate data reports and is forwarded in the set time period according to the agreed criteria. The crew is interested in the ship name, compliance with route regulations, course, speed, and turn rate. Static data includes ship name, call number, IMO number, captain, ship width, antenna location, ship type. Voyage related information (needs to be entered for each voyage) includes draught, cargo information, destination port, estimated time of arrival (ETA), and other related information. The above two reports are updated every six minutes.
Dynamic data includes time, ship position, course over ground, ground speed, turn rate, and sailing status.
3. Discussion on the Application of Relevant Technologies in Marine Fishery in Shandong Province
Shandong is a major province of marine fishery, and safety production is very important. It is an important task for the marine fishery authorities at all levels to strengthen safety production of marine fishery and establish safe marine fisheries.
3.1 Improving Qualities of Fishing Port Supervision Staff
It is necessary to establish a management team with good political caliber, high professional skills, and strong sense of responsibility. The staff must not only adhere to principles, but also pay attention to the methods of work, overcome bureaucracy, and be patient and meticulous at the work for the masses. Any people violating rules and regulations should be educated first supplemented with punishment. Additionally, it is necessary to strengthen the building of a clean and honest government, correct unhealthy practices in the industry, and improve the prestige of the fishing port supervision authorities among the masses.
3.2 Role in Search and Rescue Work
The application of BDS is very helpful for the establishment of a unified search and rescue command center for fishery aquatic accidents and a professional water search and rescue team. Special funds can be established to improve the timeliness and effectiveness of water search and rescue, and to reduce losses and casualties caused by fishing boat accidents.
3.3 Online Information Publishing
It is necessary to strengthen liaison and actively publish early warning information. All localities are required to strengthen their ties with meteorological departments, pay close attention to weather and sea conditions, and promptly inform fishing and aquaculture boats of catastrophic and unexpected meteorological warning information such as high winds, waves, and storm surges through various channels such as information platforms, shore-to-station broadcasting, mobile phone short messages and so on. It is important to promptly remind fishing boats operating at sea to take precautionary measures such as taking shelter from the wind, in order to prevent accidents caused by negligence and fluke.